新航道·考研英语真题同源阅读80篇

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《新航道·2013考研英语真题同源阅读80篇》所选文章题材广泛,涉及科普、经济、语言、社会生活、文化、健康、环境、商业等各方面、超纲词和长难句含量贴近真题,贴近大纲;文章组合结构与最新考研大纲完全一致;题目设计严格参照真题的题型模式。 《新航道·2013考研英语真题同源阅读80篇》包括16个TEST,每个TEST分为Part A 和Part B.Part A包括四篇(共64篇)文章,主要锻炼考生理解主旨要义、具体信息、概念性含义,进行有关的判断、推理和引申,根据上下文推测生词的词义等能力;Part B为一篇(共16篇阅读文章),涉及四种备选题型:选择搭配题、段落推理题、观点与例证和小标题选择题,测试要点是理解文章结构,理解诸如连贯性、一致性等语段特征,锻炼考生分辨论点和论据的能力。每篇文章的谋篇除了应考题目之外,还补充了一下五项内容:难词/词组释义、文章概要、难句分析、题目解析和参考译文,旨在切实提高考生的英语阅读水平,进而提高其综合英语水平。
书    名
新航道·考研英语真题同源阅读80篇
出版社
中国对外翻译出版公司
页    数
330页
开    本
16
定    价
32.00
作    者
许卉艳 李丽君
出版日期
2012年1月1日
语    种
英语
ISBN
7500126085, 9787500126089
品    牌
北京新航道教育文化发展有限责任公司

新航道·考研英语真题同源阅读80篇基本介绍

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新航道·考研英语真题同源阅读80篇内容简介

《新航道·2013考研英语真题同源阅读80篇》优势及卖点:最新时文,真题同源;考题设置,紧扣大纲;中文概要,把握主线;难句剖析,细节点津;参考译文,加深理解。
  《新航道·2013考研英语真题同源阅读80篇》阅读文章在题源上与考研阅读文章保持一致,均选自国外近几年出版的英文报刊;《新闻周刊》、《泰晤士报》、《经济学家》、《时代周刊》、《纽约时报》等,既充分保证了选材的时新性和典型性,又保证了文章在题材和体裁上与考研阅读文章的一致性。同时,《新航道·2013考研英语真题同源阅读80篇》还提供了文章的题目及详细出处,供考生进一步查询、阅读及参考。

新航道·考研英语真题同源阅读80篇作者简介

许卉艳,北京师范大学外语系英语教学专业研究生班毕业,现任中国矿业大学(北京)外语系副主任、副教授、硕士生导师,长期从事英语教学研究,主要研究方向为翻译学和跨文化交际。

新航道·考研英语真题同源阅读80篇图书目录

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Contents
  TEST 1 1
  Part A 1
  Part B 16
  TEST 2 21
  Part A 21
  Part B 36
  TEST 3 41
  Part A 41
  Part B 56
  TEST 4 61
  Part A 61
  Part B 75
  TEST 5 80
  Part A 80
  Part B 95
  TEST 6 100
  Part A 100
  Part B 116
  TEST 7 121
  Part A 121
  Part B 136
  TEST 8 141
  Part A 141
  Part B 156
  TEST 9 161
  Part A 161
  Part B 175
  TEST 10 180
  Part A 180
  Part B 194
  TEST 11 200
  Part A 200
  Part B 215
  TEST 12 220
  Part A 220
  Part B 234
  TEST 13 239
  Part A 239
  Part B 254
  TEST 14 259
  Part A 259
  Part B 275
  TEST 15 281
  Part A 281
  Part B 296
  TEST 16 301
  Part A 301
  Part B 317

新航道·考研英语真题同源阅读80篇文摘

编辑
Test 1
  Part A
  Directions:
  Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C, or D.
  Text 1
  Thanks to more than 50 years of research, we know how to change children's behavior. In brief, you identify the unwanted behavior, define its positive opposite (the desirable behavior you want to replace it with), and then make sure that your child engages in a lot of reinforced practice of the new behavior until it replaces the unwanted one. Reinforced practice means that you pay as much attention as possible to the positive opposite so that your child falls into a pattern: Do the right behavior, get a reward (praise or a token); do the behavior, get a reward. Real life is never as mechanically predictable as that formula makes it sound, and many other factors will bear on your success-including your relationship with your child, what behaviors you model in your home, and what influences your child is exposed to in other relationships-but, still, we know that reinforced practice usually works.1 If you handle the details properly, in most cases a relatively brief period of intense attention to the problem, lasting perhaps a few weeks, should be enough to work a permanent change in behavior.
  So, yes, you can change your child's behavior, but that doesn't mean you always should. When faced with an unwanted behavior, ask yourself if changing a behavior will really make a worthwhile difference in your child's life and your own. Many unwanted behaviors, including some that disturb parents, tend to drop out on their own, especially if you don't overreact to them and reinforce them with a great deal of excited attention.2 Take thumb sucking, which is quite common up to age 5. At that point it drops off sharply and continues to decline. Unless the dentist tells you that you need to do something about it right now, you can probably let thumb sucking go.
  Now, we're not saying that you should ignore lying or stealing or some other potentially serious misbehavior just because it will probably drop out on its own in good time. There's an important distinction to be made here between managing behavior and other parental motives and duties. Parents punish for several reasons-to teach right and wrong, to satisfy the demands of justice, to establish their authority-that have little to do with changing behavior. You can't just let vandalism go without consequences, and it's reasonable to refuse to put up with even a lesser offense such as undue whining, but don't confuse punishing misbehavior with taking effective steps to eliminate it. Punishment on its own (that is, not supplemented by reinforced practice of the positive opposite) has been proven again and again to be a fairly weak method for changing behavior. The misbehaviors in question, minor or serious, are more likely to drop out on their own than they are to be eliminated through punishment.
  1. How can reinforced practice help to change children's behavior?
  [A] Reinforced practice can eventually replace the unwanted behavior.
  [B] Parents need to define the consequences of unwanted behavior.
  [C] A timely reward can always help to define positive behavior.
  [D] Children can automatically take in reinforced practice as part of their habits.
  2. Which of the following may NOT affect the realization of permanent change in behavior?
  [A] Relationship between parents and children.
  [B] What models parents set up at home.
  [C] How much award children are promised.
  [D] How attentive parents are.
  3. The example of thumb sucking is cited to prove all the following EXCEPT that ________.
  [A] it is unnecessary to correct all unwanted behaviors
  [B] some parents are disturbed by such misbehaviors
  [C] dentists sometimes can be wrong in diagnosing diseases with oral cavity
  [D] as children grow up, some unwanted behaviors might deny themselves
  4. According to the author, what attitude should parents take towards lying or stealing?
  [A] Parents can expect such behaviors to drop out on its own.
  [B] Parents should learn to put up with such unwanted behavior.
  [C] Parents can do nothing except relying on the self-reliance of children.
  [D] Parents need to resort to effective steps in order to eliminate such behavior.
  5. The author implies that the results of punishment _____.
  [A] may not be as profitable as they are expected
  [B] can serve as a supplementary practice to persuasion
  [C] are mostly underestimated by parents
  [D] rely on the nature of misbehavior
  难词释义
  vandalism ['v?nd?l?z(?)m] n. 故意破坏, 破坏行为
  whining ['wa?n??] n. 哭哭啼啼,哭嚷
  文章概要
  本文出自SLATE 2009年3月27日一篇题为“The Messy Room Dilemma-When to Ignore Behavior, When to Change It”的文章,作者Alan E. Kazdin 和Carlo Rotella。本文主要阐述了家长对孩子负面行为应该持有的态度。习惯上,家长们总是会竭力纠正或制止从自己的角度出发不能接受的行为,然而本文作者认为孩子们的某些负面行为是会随着他们的成长而自然终止的。比如许多孩子的一个通病:啃手指甲就会在孩子大概5岁时自然停止。但是像撒谎、偷窃这样的行为的确不容忽视,家长应该采取切实有效的措施,正确引导孩子形成新的正面的行为,取代以前不好的负面行为。
  难句分析
  1. Real life is never as mechanically predictable as that formula makes it sound, and many other factors will bear on your success-including your relationship with your child, what behaviors you model in your home, and what influences your child is exposed to in other relationships-but, still, we know that reinforced practice usually works.
  结构分析:本句是“and”和“but”连接的三个并列句,其中第二个并列句包括介词“including”引导的主语补足语,补充说明“many other factors”都包括哪些因素;第三个并列句是主谓宾的结构,“that”引导宾语从句。
  参考译文:现实生活从来没有定式可言,许多其他因素会影响到你的成功,包括你与孩子的关系,你在家里的行为模式,以及孩子接触到的其他关系所产生的影响;但尽管如此,我们知道,强化某一行为常常是行之有效的。
  2. Many unwanted behaviors, including some that disturb parents, tend to drop out on their own, especially if you don't overreact to them and reinforce them with a great deal of excited attention.
  结构分析:本句是包括“if”所引导的条件从句的主从复合句,主句的核心结构为“Many unwanted behaviors…tend to drop out on their own”,介词结构“including some that disturb parents”是主句主语“Many unwanted behaviors”的补足语。
  参考译文:许多负面行为,包括那些让父母很不安的行为,往往会自行消失,尤其是那些你没有过度矫正,和那些由于刻意重视反而被强化的行为。
  题目解析
  1. 答案为[A]。细节题。文章首段第二句“…your child engages in a lot of reinforced practice of the new behavior until it replaces the unwanted one”, 可见作者认为不断地强化一种新的行为会使其逐渐取代那些不好的行为,这是一个逐步改造和最终替代的过程,因此选择[A]。
  2. 答案为[C]。细节题。文章第一段第四句“Real life…, and many other factors will bear on your success…”指出校正孩子的行为也会受到一些其他因素的影响,比如1) your relationship with your child; 2) what behaviors you model in your home; 3) what influences your child is exposed to in other relationships. 只有选项[C]原文没有提及,因此本题应选[C]。
  3. 答案为[C]。推断题。文章第二段首先阐述了家长在制止孩子的某些负面行为时首先要判断这样做是否有意义,因为这些行为往往会自然终止,由此可判断选项[A]和[D]是符合文章原意的;选项[B]与本段第三句话所表达的意思一致,因此只有[C]选项是文章没有提及的,所以本题应选[C]。
  4. 答案为[D]。态度题。文章最后一段首句指出“…we're not saying that you should ignore lying or stealing…”,也就是我们不应该忽视诸如撒谎、偷窃这样的行为,因为这类行为的性质和前段所列举的小孩子“啃指甲”的坏毛病不同。对于后者,家长可以不干涉,因为这类行为在孩子长大后会自然终止,撒谎等行为既然不同于这类行为,就应该重视,并采取有效的方法制止,因此本题选择[D]。[A]选项和[B]选项都不符合原文的意思;[C]选项的意思是家长面对此类行为无能为力,显然也与作者的原意相反。
  5. 答案为[A]。推断题。根据文章的最后两句话“Punishment on its own…for changing behavior.”以及“The misbehaviors…are to be eliminated through punishment”可以得出作者认为许多负面的行为是会自动停止的,相对而言,惩罚常常是行之无效的,因此本题应选[A]。[B]、[C]选项与原文意思不符,[D]选项的内容与文章主题不相关。
  参考译文
  过去50多年来的研究成果使我们懂得了该如何改变孩子的行为习惯。简而言之,首先识别孩子的不良行为,而后明确其积极的对立面(即你希望孩子取代坏习惯的理想行为),然后确保孩子不断地强化练习这种新行为,最终使其取代那些不良行为。强化练习是指尽可能更多地关注不良行为的积极对立面,帮助孩子形成这样一种模式:做对了会有奖(口头表扬或给个奖品);以后按照正确的方式去做了也有奖。现实生活从来没有定式可言,许多其他因素会影响到你的成功,包括你与孩子的关系,你在家里的行为模式,以及孩子接触到的其他关系所产生的影响;但尽管如此,我们知道,强化某一行为常常是行之有效的。如果细节处理得当,大多数情况下,只要对该问题密切关注一段时间(也许需要几周),那么就足以使行为永久改变。
  的确,你可以改变孩子的行为,但那不意味着你永远都可以这样做。遇到孩子有不良行为时,问问自己,如果矫正了这种行为,对你和孩子的生活是否真的值得、真的重要。许多不良行为,包括那些让父母很不安的行为,往往会自行消失,尤其是那些你没有过度矫正,和那些由于刻意重视反而被强化的行为。以吮拇指为例,这在5岁以下的孩子中是非常常见的。但到5岁时就会明显减少,并会持续减少下去。除非牙医对你说有必要立刻制止孩子吮拇指,否则你可以任其发展下去。
  以上事实并不是说因为有些坏毛病到一定时候自行消失,所以我们应该无视那些撒谎、偷窃或其他潜在的严重坏行为。这里有必要对矫正习惯和其他父母管教的职责和目的做一个区分。父母惩罚孩子有如下几个原因:教给孩子是非观念,满足正义的要求,建立家长权威,而这些都与改变孩子行为习惯关系不大。我们不能放任不顾后果的破坏行为,而且也有必要拒绝容忍像过分哭闹那样的小小触怒。但是,我们不能把惩罚不良行为与采取有效措施消除不良行为混为一谈。惩罚本身(指没有对不良行为的积极对立面的强化训练来加以补充)一次又一次地被证明对改变行为方式收效甚微。那些大家认为的不良行为,无论大小,都更有可能自行改正而不是通过惩罚来消除。

新航道·考研英语真题同源阅读80篇序言

编辑
前言
  考研英语大纲自2005年发生重大变化,阅读理解部分的分值从原先的50分增加到60分,在整个考研英语中的份量越来越足以决定考研的成败。因此,“得阅读者得天下”。本书由三位一直关注考研命题趋势、有多年考研辅导教材编写经验的高校英语教师精心编写;胡敏老师根据考研最新动向和命题规律,为本书的题目设置提出了很多宝贵的修改建议并对本书进行了整体把关,从而使得本书的质量得到进一步提升。本书集万般努力于一身,旨在帮助广大考生切实提高英语阅读理解能力,打下考研英语阅读理解这半壁江山。本书也可作为拟通过大学英语六级考试的考生提高阅读理解能力的有效辅助教材。
  编者通过仔细分析近年考研英语阅读文章,发现文章选材多出自英语时文报刊。鉴于此,本书选取的阅读文章在题源上与考研阅读文章保持一致,均来自国外近年出版的英文报刊:《新闻周刊》、《泰晤士报》、《经济学家》、《科学美国人》、《时代周刊》、《纽约时报》、《国际先驱者论坛》、《自然》、《洛杉矶时报》、《新科学家》、《未来学家》、《美国新闻与世界报道》、《财富》、《观察家》、《商业周刊》、《科学》等,既充分保证了选材的时新性和典型性,又保证了文章在题材和体裁上与考研阅读文章的一致性。同时,本书还提供了文章的题目及详细出处,供考生进一步查询、阅读及参考。实践证明,广泛阅读英语报刊文章,有助于学习者真正掌握英语语言表达规律,切实提高语言运用能力。
  本书所选文章题材广泛,涉及科普、经济、语言、社会生活、文化、健康、环境、商业等各方面。超纲词和长难句含量贴近真题,贴近大纲;文章组合结构与最新考研大纲完全一致;题目设计严格参照真题的题型模式。
  本书共包括16个TEST,每个TEST分为Part A和Part B.Part A包括四篇(共64篇)多项选择阅读文章,主要锻炼考生理解主旨要义、具体信息、概念性含义,进行有关的判断、推理和引申,根据上下文推测生词的词义等能力;Part B为一篇(共16篇)阅读文章,涉及四种备选题型:选择搭配题、段落排序题、观点与例证和小标题选择题,测试要点是理解文章结构,理解诸如连贯性、一致性等语段特征,锻炼考生分辨论点和论据的能力。
  每篇文章的谋篇除应考题目之外,还补充了以下五项内容:1、难词/词组释义。对文中出现的重点、难点词汇进行解释,并加注音标,利于考生寓记于读。2、文章概要。简要介绍文章内容,帮助考生了解文章大意及行文逻辑,攻克阅读难点。3、难句分析。针对近年来考研阅读理解的长难句数量增加这一趋势,本书从文中选出一些长难句,对其句子结构、理解难点逐一分析,并附有参考译文,以增强考生对难句的驾驭能力,从根本上提高阅读水平。4、题目解析。每道题都明确标注题目考查要点,详细说明解题方法,帮助考生快速理清思路,掌握答题技巧。5、参考译文。每篇阅读文章最后都附有参考译文,帮助考生透彻理解文章,不留任何盲点。
  本书编写过程中,三位老师付出了宝贵的时间、大量的精力和辛勤的汗水;本书内容参考并采用了相关期刊杂志及资料的内容,特在此说明并表示感谢。
  编者
  2012年1月

新航道·考研英语真题同源阅读80篇编辑推荐

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《2015考研英语真题同源阅读80篇》优势及卖点:
  最新时文,真题同源
  考题设置,紧扣大纲
  中文概要,把握主线
  难句剖析,细节点津
  参考译文,加深理解
  精彩解析,破解阅读密码!
  权威指导,彰显名师风范!

新航道·考研英语真题同源阅读80篇目录

编辑
TEST 1
  Part A
  Part B
  TEST 2
  Part A
  Part B
  TEST 3
  Part A
  Part B
  TEST 4
  Part A
  Part B
  TEST 5
  Part A
  Part B
  TEST 6
  Part A
  Part B
  TEST 7
  Part A
  Part B
  TEST 8
  Part A
  Part B
  TEST 9
  Part A
  Part B
  TEST 10
  Part A
  Part B
  TEST 11
  Part A
  Part B
  TEST 12
  Part A
  Part B
  TEST 13
  Part A
  Part B
  TEST 14
  Part A
  Part B
  TEST 15
  Part A
  Part B
  TEST 16
  Part A
  Part B

  
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